The chiropractic internist may serve as a primary care physician or may see patients referred from other providers for evaluation and co-management. Evaluation is focused on the early detection of functional, nutritional, and pathological disorders. A chiropractic internist utilizes the diagnostic instruments necessary for proper examination. In cases where laboratory examination is necessary, a chiropractic internist utilizes a recognized reference laboratory facility. A chiropractic internist may manage his or her own cases or may refer to another specialist when prudent to do so. The chiropractic internist utilizes documented natural therapies, therapeutic lifestyle changes, patient education and other resources to promote patient health and avoidance of disease.